Back in June 2010 I reported about Google's work on making the internet protocols (TCP, DNS) work faster (see "Google - [Our] TCP Can Do 12% Better" - here).
A recent post by Yuchung Cheng (pictured), Make The Web Faster Team, to Google's Code blog provides now additional details.
"Our research shows that the key to reducing latency is saving round trips .. [by]  Increase TCP initial congestion window to 10 (IW10)  Reduce the initial timeout from 3 seconds to 1 second  Use TCP Fast Open (TFO)  Use Proportional Rate Reduction for TCP (PRR) .. In addition, we are developing algorithms to recover faster on noisy mobile networks, as well as a guaranteed 2-RTT delivery during startup".
See "Let's make TCP faster" - here.